Structural Components of Aircraft



The structures of large aircraft are the wings, fuselage and empennage. The surfaces of primary flight control, located on the wings and stabilizers are ailerons, elevators and rudder. These parts are connected by seams, joints call.
All joints constructed with rivets, screws or special fasteners lap joints. The clips can not be used in joints in which the materials to be joined do not overlap - for example, at top, tea and edge joints. An edge Fayed is a type of lap joint made when two metal surfaces are faced against each other, so that they overlap.
The internal organs that aircraft are manufactured in four ways: grinding, stamping, bending, and extrusion. The metal becomes part milled gypsum caused by first setting and then either chemically etching or grinding. A stamped part is annealed, placed in a press forming, and then re-heat treatment.
curved pieces are made of sheet metal mechanics using the emission curve and design procedures. A lump is an aircraft part that is formed by forcing through a preformed metal matrix. The resulting shapes are used as forged clubs, studs, beams, or channels. Extruded metal, bent or formed, it must first be malleable and ductile annealing. After the forming operation, the metal becomes a heat treatment and age hardened.
Airbus Wings
Here in the UK and in particular on the Airbus plant in north Wales, is our experience in the manufacture of aircraft wings. The wings have to be strong enough to withstand the forces of flight positive and negative forces of landing. metal wings are of two types: Semicantilever and full cantilever. Semicantilever, or braced, the wings are used on light aircraft. Abroad are supported by struts or flying wires that connect the wing spar to the fuselage. A full cantilever wing is generally stronger metal. It requires no external reinforcement or support. The skin takes some pressure off the wing. Parts common to both designs are wing spars, ribs compression above the ribs, beams, stress plates, reinforcements. wingtips and wing skin.
Broughton Airbus employs more than 5,000 people, mostly in manufacturing but also in engineering and support functions such as procurement and finance.
Wing Masts
Two or more poles are used in the construction of a wing. They carry the main longitudinal butt to the tip - the burden of the wing. Both the mast and a compression rib connecting the wing to the fuselage.
Compression Ribs
compression ribs with the main charges in the direction of flight, edge to trailing edge. In some aircraft from the side of compression is a structural part of the line separating two main masts. The main function of the rib of compression is to absorb the force exerted on the bar when the aircraft is in flight.
Former Ribs
Anterior rib, which is made of light metal, is attached to the uprights to give the arm wings and its aerodynamic shape. Former ribs ribs can be classified as nose, behind the ribs edge, and mid ribs run forward and in the front and rear wing spar. Trainers are not considered primary structural elements.
Bands are made of thin sheets of preformed or extruded aluminum alloy hand-shaped. They run from front to back along the fuselage and wing to stop the wing tip. Wing skin riveted to both the bar and gives extra strength ribs of the wings.
Stress Plates
Stress plates are used in the wings to support the weight of the fuel tank. Some stress plates are made of thick metal and some are thin corrugated metal for strength. stress plates are usually held in place by long rows of machine screws with self-locking nuts that thread onto circuit specially mounted. The stress is channeling plate nailed to the stringers and ribs compression.
Squares, or reinforcing plates are used on aircraft to join and strengthen the intersection of the structural elements. Brackets are used to transfer stress from one member to another at the point where members join.
Wing tips
The tip of the wing, the outer edge of the wing, has two purposes: To smooth aerodynamic flow wingtips and wing air to give a finished look.
Wing Skins
wing skins cover the internal parts and provide a smooth air flow over the wing surface. At the height of cantilever wings, skins to carry tension. However, all wing skins should be treated as primary structures if they are fully adopted or overhanging surfaces.
Airframe Assemblies.
The majority of aircraft structural components, there are two types of metal airframe: semimonocoque complete monocoque. The total monocoque fuselage has less internal parts and a more highly stressed in the fuselage skin semimonocoque, using internal reinforcements for strength.
The whole monocoque fuselage is generally used in smaller aircraft because stressed skin eliminates the need for rails, antique rings, and other internal reinforcements, thereby reducing the airframe.
The fuselage semimonocoque derives its strength from the following internal parts: bulkheads, stringers, keel beams, drag struts, supports for the body, above the rings and stringers.
A closure is a structural partition, usually located in the fuselage, which is usually perpendicular to the keel beam or beams. Some examples of places where the closure is connected wing spars to the fuselage, where the domes of cabin pressurization are secured to the structure of the fuselage, cabin and boarding gates or entry.
Stringers and keel beams
Stringers and keel beams perform the same function in the fuselage of an aircraft. Both bear the brunt of the burden to carry forward and aft. The beam of the hull and spars, the strongest sections of the fuselage, the tie with their weight in aircraft parts, such as power plants, fuel cells and landing gear.
Drag Struts, and other accessories
Drag props and accessories support body are other primary structural elements. Drag struts are used in large aircraft to tie the wing to the center fuselage section. support body accessories are used to support structures that make up the sections of closure or armor ground.
Former fuselage rings and rails are not the primary structural elements. Former rings are used to shape the fuselage. Fuselage stringers running fore and aft are used to tie in the bulkheads and
antique rings.
Section Aircraft empennage
The empennage is the plane's tail section. This is a horizontal stabilizer, elevator, vertical stabilizer and rudder. The conventional empennage section contains the same type of parts used in the construction of a wing. The internals of the stabilizers and flight controls are carried out with stringers, ribs, stringers and skins.
In addition, tail sections, like wings, can be externally or internally braced.
Horizontal stabilizer and elevator
The horizontal stabilizer is connected to a primary control surface, ie the elevator. The elevator makes the nose of the aircraft to pitch up or down. Overall, the horizontal stabilizer and elevator provide stability around the horizontal axis of the aircraft. In some planes, the horizontal stabilizer is movable by a screw jack assembly that allows the pilot to trim the aircraft in flight.
Vertical stabilizer and rudder
The vertical stabilizer is connected to the aft end of the fuselage and gives the stability of aircraft about the vertical axis. Connected to the vertical stabilizer is the rudder, the purpose of which is to turn the aircraft about its vertical axis.
Elevators and rudders are the primary flight controls in the tail section. Ailerons primary flight controls are connected to the wings. Located on the outer wing, allowing the airplane to rotate around the longitudinal axis.
When the right aileron moves up, the left one goes down, causing the aircraft to roll to the right. Because this action creates a tremendous force, the wings must be constructed to resist them.
Flight controls which are not the top three are needed in high performance aircraft. On the wings of a widebody aircraft, for example, there are as many as thirteen flight controls, including the flaps and ailerons at low speed high, and sabotage.
Flaps and spoilers
increase the wing flaps for takeoff and landing. Interior and side flaps on the trailing edge of the wing, full travel, which is neutral aerodynamic flow, to full down, allowing air to accumulate and create lift. The first edge flaps - flaps and ailerons Krueger variable inclination - to increase the size of the wing and allow the aircraft to land or take off on a short track. Spoilers, located in the center of the span-wise section, serve two purposes. They help high-speed ailerons in the transformation of the aircraft during flight, and are used to kill the aerodynamic lift during landing by air transmission touchdown.
Trim Tabs
Connected to the primary flight controls are those devices called flaps. They are used to make fine adjustments of the flight path of aircraft. Flaps are constructed as wings or spoilers, but they are
considerably lower.


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