Natural Gas, How Do We Store ?

natural gas consumption usually rises and falls with the seasons. In the winter months, which historically have used more natural gas for heating. We are trend towards using natural gas to produce electricity, as well as heat. Therefore, we are using more and more about natural gas per year. The peaks in the summer are becoming more common than ever now that natural gas is used for cooling our homes and businesses. The high demand for energy burns clean and efficient natural gas demands are constantly extract, process and transport natural gas to areas that need it most. You should also store the excess gas so it is ready for use. We collect certain amounts based on projections of consumption and store excess amounts to ensure that the offer is less than demand when the natural gas needs highest peak than expected.

It used to consume all the coal gas. Coal gas is stored in gas holders from the mid eighteenth century. These were large, surface tanks slowly sunk into the ground as gas stores are depleted. Coal gas is mainly used in cities for lighting, heating and cooking at times. Coal gas quickly became generally known as town gas. Once large deposits of natural gas were discovered in the twentieth century, eventually stopped using coal gas. Natural gas is much safer and cheaper than coal gas has always been.

We extract natural gas from natural gas fields and transport it via pipeline to most need. Natural gas in gaseous state can take up much space. Therefore, to cool to a temperature that puts them in a liquid state. Old aquifers are designed to contain liquids and are a great option for underground storage of liquefied natural gas. Natural gas is highly flammable above ground storage tanks where it can be exposed to heat, so underground options are preferable.

Natural gas can also be stored in old salt mines or old gas tanks. gas tanks are underground and are composed of porous rock. This rock held natural gas at a time and makes a very suitable place for storage of natural gas. We usually natural gas stored in tanks of gas that we expect to use within about one year. It may be time to remove the gas we need from gas fields, the methods used for other gas demands are unexpected.

We store natural gas in aquifers and salt mines for unexpected needs. These places offer a quick recovery of natural gas when we have a sudden demand. The gas reserve in an aquifer or salt mine usually only lasts a few days or weeks. Companies like Triple Diamond Energy provides natural gas that we have throughout the year. 

The Greenwashing of an Industry:Swimming in Natural Gas

Gas Flaring

There has never been a better time for natural gas. It is the "other" of fossil fuels, touted as a clean alternative to coal and oil. It can be non-renewable, advocates argue, but it is a bridge or transition of fuel for a happier future. Not surprisingly, the industry has done a great persuade local residents, members of Congress and the general public that there is nothing to worry about. Chesapeake Energy Corporation, one of the major players in natural gas drilling in the Marcellus Shale, which stretches from New York to Tennessee, it has been announced as the operation environment.

So when Cabot Oil and Gas, a Houston based energy company, was fined for various hydraulic fracturing spill in northeastern Pennsylvania last year, Chesapeake took the opportunity to distance themselves from what had become embarrassing. In addition to spills frack, there were numerous reports of contamination of drinking water wells in Dimock, PA. In the New Year's Day 2009, the drinking water of one resident and exploded, destroying an eight by eight foot concrete slab. Dimock experience had the potential to become a nightmare for the industry, perhaps even derail efforts to drill in the State of New York. "Certainly, when an operation is not complying with regulations issued by the State, which does not reflect well on the industry," said the director of Chesapeake's corporate development division of the company that a group of executives at an event in November .

The natural gas industry has had few problems attracting reinforcements powerful and influential. It has been argued by oil and gas executive T. Boone Pickens, who is the owner of Cabot and Warren Buffett, the oracle itself. At the opening of the Congress of Natural Gas Caucus in October, Pickens, the keynote speaker, said: "We are swimming in natural gas." Dimock residents, many of whom have sued Cabot to poisoning by water, may have a slightly different view of the potential of natural gas. In December, the Pennsylvania Department of Environmental Protection issued a consent order requires the company to provide potable water and filtration devices to 13 families within an area of nine square kilometers. Also fined $ 120,000.

More recently, the Wall Street Journal, Chesapeake CEO, Aubrey McClendon, has been touring the country along with the Sierra Club, Carl Pope proclaiming the advantages of natural gas. Its biggest selling point is that it burns cleaner than coal and oil, although the impact of extracting it from deep shale formations is controversial. It also requires the use of large quantities of diesel fuel to keep the compressors and other machines that operate 24 / 7. In response to criticism from local affiliates, especially in New York and Pennsylvania, the Pope asked: "20% of the members happens to live in places where drilling is going to be unhappy?" I am sure that is true. "So much for grassroots organizing.

In early December I went across the Bradford County, Pennsylvania, and stopped in Towanda, the county seat. The small town of about 3,000 people, located on the Susquehanna River, is buzzing with activity. Towanda Motel, at the north end of town, has been completely occupied by employees of Chesapeake since April. There is no vacancy signs hanging from the window of the office and a security guard monitors the enclosure. The company's fleet of shiny white pickups and SUVs can be seen everywhere, precursors of what appears to be a very important mission. Almost everyone I met had leased their land, from the young who owned the Victorian Charm Inn, where I was a woman who worked at the county clerk's office (open Tuesday and Thursday afternoon to accommodate "abstracters" Representatives of the company who comb through the facts that go back to the early 19th century to find out whether there can be no obstacle to the acquisition of mining rights of local landowners). When I asked the owner of a local restaurant if things had improved in Towanda from Chesapeake arrived in the city responded dryly: "Sometimes." Meanwhile, Chesapeake has opened a regional office in what was an Ames Department store on the south side of town.

As I picked my way through a copy of the local newspaper, the daily review. Chesapeake had taken out a full page ad on the subject of hydraulic fracturing, which describes the process as one that "pressure pumps a mixture of 99. 5% sand and water with a small amount of special additives," in a well to break the rock and release gas. The ad goes on to note that "... The additives are compounds found in common household products." They do not recognize, however, that fracking formula, which varies from well to well depending on the region's geology, is considered proprietary and not yet fully know what is being pumped from underground. The industry, which has been exempted from the Safe Drinking Water Act, Clean Water Act, Clean Air Act, CERCLA, and since 2005, has never been forced to publicly disclose the content of the fluids used to fracture wells . The call Halliburton escape, is inserted into the 2005 energy bill was a gift from the Bush-Cheney (Halliburton invented the hydraulic fracturing process), and in essence said that the EPA had no authority to regulate hydraulic fracturing.

Dr. Theo Coburn of endocrine disruption Bag (TEDx) has compiled what is probably the most comprehensive list of both chemicals drilling and fracturing partly based on samples from a well in Park County, Wyoming, where a gap in the surface of the shell release of drilling fluids in 2006. They have found 435 products containing fracturing chemicals, including ammonium nitrate 344, ethanol, methane and diesel. According to the Web site TEDx, "As natural gas production increases rapidly in the U.S. , Its associated pollution has reached the stage where it is contaminating the vital systems of life support - water, air and soil - and damaging to human health, wildlife, domestic animals, and vegetation " .

Chesapeake has done a good job of maintaining its environmentally friendly image, although two recent breaches show that accidents are perhaps inevitable and Cabot Oil and Gas is not necessarily the exception.

On the eve of New Year, the evidence of a spill or release of contaminating a drill site in Wayne County, PA was reported after aerial photos taken by a group of environmental monitoring, Senior Damascus for Sustainability, revealed damage to trees near a platform as well. The photos show a row of dead, leafless trees that extends from the drilling rig. Chesapeake had not reported the spill, which would be a violation of state law if they were aware of what happened. According to the Times Tribune, a "weathered oil product" was released in a forested area and soil samples indicate that contained high levels of barium and chloride.

Perhaps most damaging was reported in early December of a spill of hydrochloric acid in large haven township, not far from Towanda. The spill was said to have released 295 gallons of acid into the surrounding soil. In the assessment of consent of the DEP contaminated soil is the acid was neutralized with sodium carbonate and hydrated lime, 126 tons of contaminated soil was excavated and approximately 13 817 gallons of hydrochloric acid / water mixture were removed from the well site. According to a spokesman for the DEP, the contaminated soil was taken to a landfill in New Springfield, Ohio. Chesapeake Despite reported the spill to the DEP in February, when it occurred, cleaning and research was published recently in December after the company was fined a civil penalty of just over $ 15,500.

When I arrived asylum Kevin Barrett Township supervisor, who is the corn crop just below the drill site, said the company dealt with the spill in a responsible manner. It was in a remote area of the municipality of about half a mile of a major water source or residence on land owned by a family that lives there. When asked if he was concerned that his corn could be contaminated with hydrochloric acid, said the spill was small and posed no threat to humans, wetlands, or wildlife.

However, according to the DEP report, the estimated leak rate was 7. 5 gallons per hour, but "the staff of Chesapeake did not know how long the tank had been leaking." Chesapeake notified the DEP February 9, 2009 a leak was discovered at about 9 am A DEP representative arrived at 1 pm and the contractor of Chesapeake Emergency six hours later. If we take the figure of the company of 295 gallons of acid spilled which means that the tank was leaking for about 42 hours. Presumably, the tank was leaking hydrochloric acid for about 30 hours before anyone knew anything about it or bother to inform the DEP. This was all contained and disposed of contaminated soil?

Accidents happen, Barrett said. It is part of the price of doing business. Something McClendon and the Sierra Club's Pope might like to Acknowledge As They make the case for an industry Whose green credentials are far from Certain.

"But we have to find a cheap alternative to coal! "Scream the inhabitants of industrial civilization, afraid that perhaps the foundations of his beloved world, hungry for energy are beginning to crumble. Keep screaming, from one form to another is going to end in tears.

Properties of Natural Gas

Natural gas is a fossil fuel that has methane gas as primary component. It is derived from organic material was deposited or buried under the earth, for millions of years. It contains heavier gaseous hydrocarbons such as ethane, propane and butane, and sulfur-containing gases. Natural gas has certain properties that allow their use for industrial or domestic. For example, it contains toxic ingredients that when inhaled is absorbed into the blood.

Natural gas is tasteless, colorless, and when mixed with the appropriate volume of air and ignited, burns with a clean blue flame. It is considered one of the cleanest burning fuels, producing primarily heat, carbon dioxide and water vapor. Natural gas is odorless and before it is distributed to end users, is adding odorized thiols, which also helps in detecting any leak. Natural gas is lighter than air and tends to disperse in the atmosphere. In a state confined within a house, gas concentrations can reach explosive mixtures and ignite, causing great danger to life and property.

Natural gas has a characteristic peculiar to light only when a gas-air mixture and the percentage of natural gas is between 5 and 15 percent. A mixture containing less than 5 percent or more than 15 percent of natural gas do not light. Natural gas contains small amounts of nitrogen, oxygen, carbon dioxide, sulfur compounds and water. Liquefaction is a process involving cooling and condensing natural gas to remove constituents other than methane and carbon dioxide and sulfur. Leads to the formation of a high purity, clean-burning product that is efficient to transport and store.

Natural gas is the cleanest available fossil fuel leading to a cleaner environment. In places dominated by polluting energy sources, natural gas helps improve air quality and water. Natural gas is burned to produce no harmful air pollutants and is a highly reliable fuel for cooking.

Structural Components of Aircraft



The structures of large aircraft are the wings, fuselage and empennage. The surfaces of primary flight control, located on the wings and stabilizers are ailerons, elevators and rudder. These parts are connected by seams, joints call.
All joints constructed with rivets, screws or special fasteners lap joints. The clips can not be used in joints in which the materials to be joined do not overlap - for example, at top, tea and edge joints. An edge Fayed is a type of lap joint made when two metal surfaces are faced against each other, so that they overlap.
The internal organs that aircraft are manufactured in four ways: grinding, stamping, bending, and extrusion. The metal becomes part milled gypsum caused by first setting and then either chemically etching or grinding. A stamped part is annealed, placed in a press forming, and then re-heat treatment.
curved pieces are made of sheet metal mechanics using the emission curve and design procedures. A lump is an aircraft part that is formed by forcing through a preformed metal matrix. The resulting shapes are used as forged clubs, studs, beams, or channels. Extruded metal, bent or formed, it must first be malleable and ductile annealing. After the forming operation, the metal becomes a heat treatment and age hardened.
Airbus Wings
Here in the UK and in particular on the Airbus plant in north Wales, is our experience in the manufacture of aircraft wings. The wings have to be strong enough to withstand the forces of flight positive and negative forces of landing. metal wings are of two types: Semicantilever and full cantilever. Semicantilever, or braced, the wings are used on light aircraft. Abroad are supported by struts or flying wires that connect the wing spar to the fuselage. A full cantilever wing is generally stronger metal. It requires no external reinforcement or support. The skin takes some pressure off the wing. Parts common to both designs are wing spars, ribs compression above the ribs, beams, stress plates, reinforcements. wingtips and wing skin.
Broughton Airbus employs more than 5,000 people, mostly in manufacturing but also in engineering and support functions such as procurement and finance.
Wing Masts
Two or more poles are used in the construction of a wing. They carry the main longitudinal butt to the tip - the burden of the wing. Both the mast and a compression rib connecting the wing to the fuselage.
Compression Ribs
compression ribs with the main charges in the direction of flight, edge to trailing edge. In some aircraft from the side of compression is a structural part of the line separating two main masts. The main function of the rib of compression is to absorb the force exerted on the bar when the aircraft is in flight.
Former Ribs
Anterior rib, which is made of light metal, is attached to the uprights to give the arm wings and its aerodynamic shape. Former ribs ribs can be classified as nose, behind the ribs edge, and mid ribs run forward and in the front and rear wing spar. Trainers are not considered primary structural elements.
Bands are made of thin sheets of preformed or extruded aluminum alloy hand-shaped. They run from front to back along the fuselage and wing to stop the wing tip. Wing skin riveted to both the bar and gives extra strength ribs of the wings.
Stress Plates
Stress plates are used in the wings to support the weight of the fuel tank. Some stress plates are made of thick metal and some are thin corrugated metal for strength. stress plates are usually held in place by long rows of machine screws with self-locking nuts that thread onto circuit specially mounted. The stress is channeling plate nailed to the stringers and ribs compression.
Squares, or reinforcing plates are used on aircraft to join and strengthen the intersection of the structural elements. Brackets are used to transfer stress from one member to another at the point where members join.
Wing tips
The tip of the wing, the outer edge of the wing, has two purposes: To smooth aerodynamic flow wingtips and wing air to give a finished look.
Wing Skins
wing skins cover the internal parts and provide a smooth air flow over the wing surface. At the height of cantilever wings, skins to carry tension. However, all wing skins should be treated as primary structures if they are fully adopted or overhanging surfaces.
Airframe Assemblies.
The majority of aircraft structural components, there are two types of metal airframe: semimonocoque complete monocoque. The total monocoque fuselage has less internal parts and a more highly stressed in the fuselage skin semimonocoque, using internal reinforcements for strength.
The whole monocoque fuselage is generally used in smaller aircraft because stressed skin eliminates the need for rails, antique rings, and other internal reinforcements, thereby reducing the airframe.
The fuselage semimonocoque derives its strength from the following internal parts: bulkheads, stringers, keel beams, drag struts, supports for the body, above the rings and stringers.
A closure is a structural partition, usually located in the fuselage, which is usually perpendicular to the keel beam or beams. Some examples of places where the closure is connected wing spars to the fuselage, where the domes of cabin pressurization are secured to the structure of the fuselage, cabin and boarding gates or entry.
Stringers and keel beams
Stringers and keel beams perform the same function in the fuselage of an aircraft. Both bear the brunt of the burden to carry forward and aft. The beam of the hull and spars, the strongest sections of the fuselage, the tie with their weight in aircraft parts, such as power plants, fuel cells and landing gear.
Drag Struts, and other accessories
Drag props and accessories support body are other primary structural elements. Drag struts are used in large aircraft to tie the wing to the center fuselage section. support body accessories are used to support structures that make up the sections of closure or armor ground.
Former fuselage rings and rails are not the primary structural elements. Former rings are used to shape the fuselage. Fuselage stringers running fore and aft are used to tie in the bulkheads and
antique rings.
Section Aircraft empennage
The empennage is the plane's tail section. This is a horizontal stabilizer, elevator, vertical stabilizer and rudder. The conventional empennage section contains the same type of parts used in the construction of a wing. The internals of the stabilizers and flight controls are carried out with stringers, ribs, stringers and skins.
In addition, tail sections, like wings, can be externally or internally braced.
Horizontal stabilizer and elevator
The horizontal stabilizer is connected to a primary control surface, ie the elevator. The elevator makes the nose of the aircraft to pitch up or down. Overall, the horizontal stabilizer and elevator provide stability around the horizontal axis of the aircraft. In some planes, the horizontal stabilizer is movable by a screw jack assembly that allows the pilot to trim the aircraft in flight.
Vertical stabilizer and rudder
The vertical stabilizer is connected to the aft end of the fuselage and gives the stability of aircraft about the vertical axis. Connected to the vertical stabilizer is the rudder, the purpose of which is to turn the aircraft about its vertical axis.
Elevators and rudders are the primary flight controls in the tail section. Ailerons primary flight controls are connected to the wings. Located on the outer wing, allowing the airplane to rotate around the longitudinal axis.
When the right aileron moves up, the left one goes down, causing the aircraft to roll to the right. Because this action creates a tremendous force, the wings must be constructed to resist them.
Flight controls which are not the top three are needed in high performance aircraft. On the wings of a widebody aircraft, for example, there are as many as thirteen flight controls, including the flaps and ailerons at low speed high, and sabotage.
Flaps and spoilers
increase the wing flaps for takeoff and landing. Interior and side flaps on the trailing edge of the wing, full travel, which is neutral aerodynamic flow, to full down, allowing air to accumulate and create lift. The first edge flaps - flaps and ailerons Krueger variable inclination - to increase the size of the wing and allow the aircraft to land or take off on a short track. Spoilers, located in the center of the span-wise section, serve two purposes. They help high-speed ailerons in the transformation of the aircraft during flight, and are used to kill the aerodynamic lift during landing by air transmission touchdown.
Trim Tabs
Connected to the primary flight controls are those devices called flaps. They are used to make fine adjustments of the flight path of aircraft. Flaps are constructed as wings or spoilers, but they are
considerably lower.


welding basics


Welding is a process of joining materials such as metals and plastics with heat or pressure. It is the most widely used today to join metals, and is widely used in the production of automobiles, ships, trains, buildings and bridges. Compared with welding and brazing which introduces a soft substance to hold pieces original cast together, welding metal melts to form a solid and a strong bond.
Welding had been practiced since antiquity. The most popular method at this time was forge welding was used by blacksmiths. This method used to weld two metals together fighting over a hot charcoal.

Today, modern technology has allowed the welders to work with much greater precision and greater weld compared to the past. The First World War provided the impetus for the development of welding technologies, as many countries were seeking the best and most efficient ships and aircraft welding for war. Thereafter, the welding technology became a modern art could be done manually, and the use of robotic machines. In particular, it can be done under different environmental conditions, such as underwater, on the site and in workshops. Despite these rapid advances, welding seems a very high risk and dangerous process that could expose a welder for burns, poisonous or toxic gases and even eye damage.
The most common welding methods practiced today are gas, arc spot, resistance, electron beam, laser and robotic welding.
Gas welding is commonly referred to as oxyacetylene where oxygen gas mixture to produce a high temperature flame in the torch to melt the edges of metal to be welded. Therefore, oxyacetylene welding usually requires two tanks or bottles to store oxygen and acetylene fuel. This method is one of the oldest techniques used and is still practiced around the world. This is mainly because the equipment including storage bottles are easy to transport. This is widely used to join pipes and simple manufacturing.

Arc welding uses an electric arc between an electrode and the subject material while melting together to create a strong bond or a weld. Arc welding is widely used in industrial applications, which is cheap. The problem with the arc process is that sometimes the welds can be fragile and weak because of oxygen and nitrogen in the atmosphere. To overcome this problem, shielded gas such as hydrogen, argon and helium are used.

Resistance welding uses physical pressure and the heat of welding materials. The heat is generated by high resistance to electric current passing through the material to be welded. This method is popular among many other industrial applications because it is easily automated and economical high production volumes. Because of its high initial investment costs may not be feasible for use in low production volumes.

Spot welding is another form of resistance welding used to join four sheets of metal. In spot welding, two electrodes are used to weld metal plates are clamped together by applying pressure and sending a high current through them. welding can be automated and energy efficient, so it is widely used in many industrial applications such as automotive joint.

electron beam welding process uses electron beam high-speed materials. When high speed electrons bombard the material, the heat is too high, resulting in a fusion of materials and the creation of a strong joint bonded. The electron beam is produced using a hot cathode emitter made of tungsten. This method is a very precise, and popularly used in aerospace and semiconductor industry.
Laser welding process to join multiple pieces of metal by means of a concentrated heat source. This method is not only accurate and efficient, but also because of the heat loss very little about the specific area. In addition, the laser can penetrate deeply into the heat of the metals to be welded. laser welding is used in automobile assembly plants automated.


How Does Centrifugal Pump Work (provided by 3d video)

A centrifugal pump is a pump rotodynamic in nature that employs the use of a driver turning to increase the pressure of a liquid. These are commonly used to move fluids through piping systems. The liquid enters the pump along a road near the shaft is rotating. After the entrance, its speed is fast by the impeller causing the fluid flowing in the outward direction. Upon entry into the glass and has an exit to downstream piping system, which is why these bombs are found to be of great help due to the fact that they make larger discharges through small head.

The inspiration for the centrifugal pump is believed to have originated from a water lifting machine that was invented by the Italian engineer Francesco di Giorgio Martini, in 1475, according to a Brazilian historian is believed to be the prototype of a pump applied centrifugal force. The first real centrifugal pump was invented in 1600 by Denis Papin. However, the vane pump Papin had straight rather than curved, and centrifugal pumps began to have curved fins not before 1851, presented by the British inventor John Appold.

A centrifugal pump functions by converting the driving force of kinetic energy, which is often the result of an electric motor or turbine rotation, higher static liquid pressure. Bernoullui first described this action. Turning the pump rotor, which imparts kinetic energy as fluid is drawn into the eye of the impeller and is forced outwards to the periphery. The fluid kinetic energy changes as it exits the impeller and is converted into static pressure due to change in the area of the experiences of fluid in the section of the volute. This static pressure occurs because the area experiences fluid in the spiral section is changed. One of the main factors for this is the spiral shape of the pump housing or pallets that are responsible for this conversion. The main objective is to reduce the diffused fluid speed and convert the kinetic energy in the workflow and, consequently, the pressure on the downstream side of the pump increases, causing flow.

Centrifugal pumps have their fair share of the problems, of course, such as erosion, corrosion, overheating due to low flow, leakage and overload, they need regular maintenance to me. The energy use of a centrifugal pump can be estimated fairly easily, depending on the required flow, the height lifted, and the total length of the pipeline.

the next video i have design it nearly that explain how pump work and how it's impeller rotate and  convert the kinetic energy to pressure energy

all about gears (kinds ,applications,.....)


Gears are Power transmission elements. It is the Gears that decides the torque, speed and direction of rotation of all the driven machine elements. Broadly speaking, Gear types may be grouped into five major categories. They are Spur, Helical, Bevel, Hypoid, and Worm. A lot of intricacies are there in the different types of gears. Actually The choice of gear type is not a very easy process. It is dependent on a number of considerations. Factors that go into it are physical space and shaft arrangement, gear ratio, load, accuracy and quality level.

Types of Gears

Types of Gears

A number of gears are manufactured using different materials and with different performance specifications depending on the industrial application. These gears are available in a range of capacities, sizes and speed ratios, but the main function is to convert the input of a prime mover into an output with high torque and low RPM. These range of gears find use in almost every industry right from agriculture to aerospace, from mining to paper and pulp industry. Some of the popular types of gears in use are :

Spur Gears

Spur Gear

Spur gears are straight-toothed gears having radial teeth used to transmit power and motion between parallel axes. These gears are widely used for speed increase or reduction, high torque, resolution for positioning systems.

These gears can either be mounted on a hub or a shaft. The gears are available in different size, design, shape and also offer a variety of features and functions to cater to different industrial requirements.

Materials Used
Spur gears are fabricated from superior quality materials, like:
  • Metal- steel, cast iron, brass, bronze and stainless steel.
  • Plastic- acetal, nylon and polycarbonate.
Materials used to manufacture these gears are used keeping in mind certain factors including design life, power transmission requirements, noise generation.

Important Specifications to be Considered
  • Gear center
  • Bore diameter
  • Shaft diameter
Use of Spur Gears
These gears find wide application in a number of fields including :
  • Automobiles
  • Textiles
  • Industrial engineering

Bevel Gears

Bevel Gear

Bevel gears are mechanical devices used for transmitting mechanical power and motion. These gears are widely used for transmitting power and motion between nonparallel axes and are designed to transmit motion between intersecting axes, generally at right angles. The teeth on bevel gear can be straight, spiral or hypoid. The gears are suitable when the direction of a shaft's rotation needs to be changed.

Materials used
Materials used to manufacture these gears are used keeping in mind certain factors including design life, power transmission requirements, noise generation. Some of the important materials used are :
  • Metal - Steel, cast iron and stainless steel.
  • Plastic - Acetal and polycarbonate.
Important specifications to be considered
  • Gear center
  • Bore diameter
  • Shaft diameter
Use of Bevel Gear
These gears find wide application in a number of fields including :
  • Automotive industry
  • Textile industry
  • Industrial engineering products

Helical Gears

Helical Gears

Helical gear is a popular type of gear having its teeth cut at an angle, thus allowing for more gradual and smoother meshing between gear wheels. The helical gears are a refinement over spur gears.

The teeth on helical gears are specially cut at an angle, so as to face the gear. As two teeth on the gear system engage, it starts a contact on one end of the tooth which gradually spreads with the gear rotation, until the time when both the tooth are fully engaged.

The gears are available in different sizes, shapes and designs to meet the customer specifications.

Materials Used
These gears can be manufactured from superior quality materials including stainless steel, steel, cast iron, brass etc. depending on the application.

Use of Helical Gears
These gears are used in areas requiring high speeds, large power transmission, or where noise prevention is important.
  • Automobiles
  • Textile
  • Aerospace
  • Conveyors

Worm Gears

Worm Gear

Worm Gear

A worm gear is a type of gear, engaging with a worm to significantly reduce rotational speed, or allowing higher torque to be transmitted. The gear can achieve a higher gear ratio than spur gears of the same size.

Materials Used
Worm gears can be constructed from a number of materials depending on the end application. Some of the popularly use materials are :
  • Brass
  • Stainless steel
  • Cast iron
  • Aluminum
  • Hardened steel
The gears can operate under difficult conditions and have the ability to achieve large speed reductions. The gears also transmit high loads at high speed ratios.

Types of Worm Gears
  • Non-throated
  • Single-throated
  • Double-throated
Use of Worm Gears
These gears find application in :
  • Electric motors
  • Automotive components

Differential Gears

Differential Gear

Differential gears are referred to an arrangement of gears, connecting two axles in the same line and dividing the driving force between them. One axle is allowed to turn faster than the other. These gears are often used in automotive industry for allowing a difference in axle speed on curves.

In automobiles, the gear system allows the wheels to rotate at different speeds and simultaneously supplying each of them with equal torque. The gears are specially designed to create a differential and consist of pinion and turnable gears.

Types of Differential Gears
  • Straight Line Differential Gears
  • Rotary Differential Gears
Materials Used
The gears are manufactured using materials including :
  • Aluminum alloys
  • Cast iron
  • Stainless steel
Use of Differential Gears
The gear is extensively used in the automobile industry for effective and efficient working of vehicles. These gears do not create noise and also help in speed differential.

Ground Gears

As generally seen grinding is most of the time conceived in context of quantity fabrication of superior quality gears as a form of secondary refining procedure. We incline to forget that grinding is essentially a basic process in the step towards production of case hardened gears. Moreover, the teeth of precision-engineered fine-pitch gears completely ground from the blank itself.

The advent of trawling also led to the development and manufacturing of Ground Gears. Ever since then ground gears have made substantial improvement in the terms of designing and component accuracy. These gears assure high transmission accuracy and deliver superior efficiency, greater load capacity, and correction of profile and durability.

Ground gears can be made using different materials, such as cast iron, carbon steel, alloy steel, hardened steel, bronze, and more.

Advantages of Ground Gears
Ground Gears offer various advantages to its users, some of which are:
  • High Precision: Achieving high precision is not a difficult task for ground gears since in the grinding process, there is little removal of material in the final pass.

  • Superior Surface Finish: Grinding makes the surface of ground gears more shiny than that obtained from any other machining technique.

  • Improved Flexibility: Hardened steel alloys can be used to developed into ground gears that gives its added flexibility.

  • Minimal Surface Stress: There is minimum residual surface stress in ground gears.

  • Load Carrying Capacity: Ground Gears exhibit a higher load carrying capacity.

  • Minimal Wear and Tear: Ground gears have minimal wear and tear that results in prolonged life.
Limitations of Ground Gears
Though ground gears offer multiple benefits and advantages, they too have some limitations:
  • There is a limit to grinding procedures and that is to ferrous material.

  • Hard metals can be grind in an efficient and better way than the soft ones.

  • In case of worm or helical gears, grinding may not be the ideal solution. This is due to the reason that it often involves deviations in terms of removal and profile.

  • Gear grinding machines are not as popular as hobbing machinery.

  • Grinding demands higher costs, as it is a secondary operation.
These gears find wide application in a number of fields including :
  • High Speed Rotation: Ground gears are ideal for uses in applications that need noise and vibration resistance in the case of high-speed gear drives. An example can be that of ground spur gears.

  • Positioning: CP Racks and Pinions are recommended for perfect positioning applications. In these cases, ground gears are used in calculating for reducing pitch errors.

Kiln Girth Gears

Kiln Girth Gears

Kiln girth gears are large diameter / large module gears that are manufactured using large gear cutting machines. The girth gear of a rotary kiln comes with a diameter of 6384 mm with 56 module and 112 teeth. These gears are very difficult to fabricate using the conventional techniques of gear cutting. In manufacturing of these gears, teeth cutting is done using face mill cutter on a horizontal boring machine, which generally reduces the time taken in teeth cutting to one-third of the original one.

The kiln girth gears come under the category of industrial gears and the commonly used material for these gears is 42 Cr Mo 4. These gears are widely used in cement industry, sugar industry and other industrial purposes and applications.

Engineered to precision, kiln girth gears are known to deliver superior efficiency and flawless performance and their overall life depends on proper alignment and lubrication. These gears are easy to install and take less time as compared to others.

Industrial Applications
Some of the important applications of girth gears include:
  • Heavy Machinery Industries
  • Metal Casting Industries
  • Metal Processing Industries
  • Construction Industries

Precision Gears

Precision gears are custom-made actuators that can be designed for varying uses and applications. These gears are generally used in applications under conditions of light loading. Precision gears are generally preferred for their precise, smooth, compact, noiseless and reliable performance.

Precision gears can be manufactured as per the customer's drawings or based on a functional description depending on the type of application. The different types of precision gear products include, - spur gears, helical gears, worm gears, anti-backlash gears, cluster gears, clutch gears, face gears, planetary gears, gear assemblies, gear boxes, bevel gears, miter gears, metric gears, internal gears, idler gears, gear rack & pinion, worms, worm shafts, splines, spline shafts, se shafts, and more. These gears can be manufactured as per the exact customer specifications or according to application need.

The quality and performance of a precision gear depends on the quality of blank in which it is cut. Thus it is essential to hold tight tolerances without grinding.

Precision gears are known for their trouble free superior performance, long service life, and excellent surface finish and customization capability. These gears are used in a variety of industrial applications, such as heavy machinery Industry, metal casting, metal processing, construction, and more. 

Rack Gears

A rack is generally used for converting rotational motion into linear motion. It is a flat bar onto which the teeth of a pinion gear are engaged. It is a kind of gear whose axis is at infinity. These gears are designed to accommodate a wide variety of applications.

Materials Used
A variety of materials are used keeping in mind the application. Some popularly used materials are :
  • Plastic
  • Brass
  • Steel
  • Cast Iron
These gears ensure quieter and smoother operation. The mechanism provides less backlash and greater steering feel.

Use of Rack Gear
The gear is commonly used in steering mechanism of cars. Other important applications of rack gears include :
  • Construction equipment
  • Machine tools
  • Conveyors
  • Material handling
  • Roller feeds


A sprocket is a gear having metal teeth that meshes with a chain. Also known as a cog wheel, it is a small toothed ring that can fit onto the rear wheel. It is a thin wheel having teeth that engage with a chain.

Materials Used
A variety of materials can be used to manufacture superior quality sprockets used in different industries. Some of the materials used are :
  • Stainless steel
  • Hardened steel
  • Cast iron
  • Brass
Use of Sprockets
This simple gear finds application in diverse areas including :
  • Food industry
  • Bicycles
  • Motorcycles
  • Cars
  • Tanks
  • Industrial machines
  • Movie projectors and cameras

Segment Gears

The segment gear, as the name suggests, is basically a gear wheel. These gear wheels are composed of a large number of pieces that are small parts of a circle. A segment gear is connected to the arms or trappings of the water wheel.

The segment gear comes with a part for receiving or communicating the reciprocating motion from or to a cogwheel. These gears also comprise of a sector of a circular ring or gear. There are also cogs on the periphery.

Segment Gears are available in various finishes, such as untreated or heat-treated and can be designed as a single component or as an entire system.

Segment gears, which are basically gear wheels, are used in variety of industrial uses and applications. These gears offer various advantages such as improved flexibility, superior surface finish, high precision and minimum wear and tear. Some of the uses of segment gears include:
  • Defense
  • Rubber
  • Railways

Planetary Gear

Planetary gear is an outer gear that revolves around a central sun gear. Planetary gears can produce different gear ratios depending on which gear is used as the input, which one is used as the output.

Materials Used
The gears can be constructed from a variety of materials including :
  • Stainless steel
  • Hardened steel
  • Cast iron
  • Aluminum
The gears are suitable for reduction of high RPM electric motors for use in high-torque low RPM applications. These gears are used in precision instruments because of their reliability and accuracy.

Use of Planetary Gears
These gears are the most widely used gears having diverse applications including :
  • Sugar industry
  • Power industry
  • Wind turbines
  • Marine industry
  • Agriculture industry

Internal Gear

An internal gear is a hollow gear with teeth cut on its internal surface. The teeth in such a gear project inwards instead of outwards from the rim.

Materials Used
There is a variety of materials being used to manufacture internal gears depending on the end application. Some of the popularly used materials are :
  • Plastic
  • Aluminum alloys
  • Cast iron
  • Stainless steel
The teeth in such gears can either be spur or helical. The internal teeth have a concave shape with a base thicker than that of an external gear. The convex shape and a strong base help in making the teeth stronger and also creating less noise.

Advantages of Internal Gear
  • The gears are specially designed to accommodate a wide range of equipment.
  • The gears are cost-effective and ideal for a broad range of light-duty applications.
  • The non-binding tooth design ensures smooth and quiet operation.
Use of Internal Gears
  • Light duty applications
  • Rollers
  • Indexing

External Gear

One of the simplest and most used gear units, external gears are extensively used in gear pumps and other industrial products for smooth functioning. These gears have straight teeth parallel to the axis. The teeth transmit rotary motion between parallel shafts.
Materials Used
The gears can be constructed from a variety of materials including :
  • Stainless steel
  • Hardened steel
  • Cast iron
  • Aluminum
The kind of material used in manufacturing these gears depends on the end use they are being put to.

Use of External Gears
These gears are used in diverse fields including :
  • Coal industry
  • Mining
  • Steel plants
  • Paper and pulp industry

Carburetors and Electronic Fuel Injectors (complete search)

first :Carburetors

The carburetor is the part of an automobile engine that converts liquid fuel into vapor. This is mixed with a certain amount of air that allows combustion in the cylinders. All gasoline vehicles have carburetors, including boats and light aircraft. Carburetors are generally found in small engines and in older automobiles, especially those used in stock car racing. Most engines have only one carburetor though most modern engines that have bigger engines or more than 4 cylinders use multiple carburetors.
The history of carburetors can be traced to the development of the wick carburetor by Donat Banki, a Hungarian engineer in 1893. Frederick and his brother built the first petrol driven car in 1896. Then in 1900, they built a 2-cylinder engine using the new wick carburetor. This car was taken on a successful 1000-mile tour, marking an important landmark in the use of the carburetor in automobiles.

There Are Two Types Of Carburetors

There are two types of carburetors: fixed choke and constant depression, the first type, fixed choke carburetors, makes the varying air pressure in the venture alter the fuel flow; this is the common downdraft carburetor found on American and most Japanese cars. The other type, the constant depression carburetors vary the airflow to change the fuel jet opening witch in turn altars the fuel flow. A vacuumed operated piston connected to a tapered needle, which slides inside the fuel jet, does this. The most common variable choke (constant depression) type carburetor is the side draft SU carburetor, which was simple in principle to adjust and maintain. This rose to a position of domination in the UK car market for that reason. Other similar designs are used on some European and a few Japanese automobiles.
Although the differences between the two types of carburetors are extensive there main function remains, they need to measure the airflow of the engine at any time, and then deliver the correct amount of fuel to keep the fuel/air mixture perfect and then mix the fuel and air evenly. A carburetor must provide the proper fuel/air mixture under a wide variety of different circumstances and engine speed range, random events that will affect the performance of the carburetor can be things like acceleration and cold start, waiting at a red light etc. This will be hard to do when you on top of this will need to maintain as low rates of exhaust emissions as humanly possibly for a poor carburetor.
To function correctly under all these conditions, most carburetors contain a complex set of mechanisms to support several different operating modes, called circuits.

--> An other difference between a carburetor and an injection is the way it is utilized when cold starting an engine, when the engine is cold, fuel vaporizes less readily and tends to condense on the walls of the intake manifold, starving the cylinders of fuel and making the engine difficult to start; thus, a richer mixture (more fuel to air) is required to start and run the engine until it warms up. In an injection engine a computer will control this automatically, but again the carburetor has to do this manually, therefore you will see a choke on a carbureted car and usually not in an injection based car.

The main parts in a carburetor are an open pipe, which is the carburetor's "barrel" or "throat" through which the air reaches the engine. The butterfly valve or the "throttle", a rotating disc in this pipe, controls the air flow through the carburetor throat, which influences the power and speed of the engine. This throttle is connected to the accelerator of the vehicle. The major manufacturers of carburetors are Amal Ltd., Autolite, Carter, Holley, Pierburg, Rochester, Solex, Stromberg, SU, Walbro and Tillotson (small engines), Briggs and Stratton, Villiers, Weber, and Zenith

second: Electronic Fuel Injectors

Today's modern cars have electronic fuel injection systems, earlier automobiles used carburetors that are less efficient and did not perform to the best. However, even, today many kinds of cars come with small engines that use carburetors. Both the carburetor and the electronic fuel injection system are kinds of engineering equipment that supply fuel to the engine.
Initially, throttle body fuel injection systems, or single point systems were introduced in the market. In this equipment usually electricity used to control fuel injector valve. Later, single point systems were replaced by better and powerful multi-port fuel injection systems that use a separate fuel injector for each cylinder. Multi-port fuel injectors provide accurate amount of fuel to each cylinder and increases the efficiency to the next level.

Fuel Injector & Plug


Fuel Injection System- An Introduction:

As most of us are aware of that the Carburetor is meant for fuel supply to the engine and it worked well also since long with petrol internal combustion engines (for both 2-stroke and 4-stroke engines) but the stricter emission norms all over the World put more pressure on the efficiency of the engines which directly affects the working of Carburetors. The evolution of Catalytic Converters put further pound on the Carburetor technology as the Catalytic Converters trap the excess residual Oxygen molecules emitted from the combustion chamber resulting early clogging of the catalytic converter. The emission of the excess residual Oxygen molecules was needed to be checked badly and unfortunately the technology of the Carburetor was inefficient to regulate the Oxygen content from both the intake air and the residual gases. To curb this need of relatively cleaner emission from the internal combustion engines Fuel Injection System was developed.

Fuel Injection System- Working:

The Fuel Injection System as the name suggests is mainly consists of an Injector or a valve with a small nozzle at the extreme end which is responsible to supply the fuel to the combustion chamber with force resulting the Atomization of the fuel (breaking of the fuel particles into much smaller molecules), this force is generated from the fuel pump which is generally placed inside the fuel tank, the atomized fuel is easier to burn when combined with the radical oxygen molecules of the air intake creating an optimum fuel and air ratio hence resulting into increased fuel efficiency with remarkably cleaner emission.

Internal Combustion Process

The early model of Fuel Injection System became more efficient when it becomes Electronic Fuel Injection System (EFI). The EFI System is consists of following parts:

Engine Control Unit (ECU):

The ECU is a small but very efficient computer chip responsible to calculate and monitor the activities of the engine through various sensors planted at different parts of the bike. On the basis of the information collected from the sensors the ECU controls the Fuel Injector’s timing to release the fuel it also governs the duration of the fuel released which in turn affects the volume of fuel injected in the combustion chamber.

Engine Sensors:

There are sensors placed at different parts of the bike attached to the ECU and from where these sensors continuously send the data to the ECU to calculate and monitor the fuel supply through the Injector.
  • Mass Airflow Sensor (MAS) – Also called as MAP sensor, it is responsible to send the data pertaining to the mass of the air entering into the combustion chamber.
  • Oxygen Sensors- These sensors are attached to the Catalytic Converter and responsible to monitor the volume of Oxygen in the exhaust, on the basis of the data sent, the ECU decides how rich or lean fuel and air mixture should be.
  • Throttle Position Sensor – TPS monitors the position of the Throttle Valve, which is directly governed by the accelerator cable and determines how much air goes into the combustion chamber. On the basis of the data given by the TPS, the ECU decides how much fuel is required to be injected.


The Fuel Injector is simply electronically regulated valve, which can squirt the pressurized fuel through small nozzle present at the extreme end. When the injector is charged an electromagnet moves the plunger to allow the pressurized fuel to come out from the nozzle in atomized form, the atomized tiny particles of the fuel burns easily when mixed with oxygen molecules.

excellent course in gas turbine (part 2) -TECHNICAL PRINCIPLES OF GAS TURBINES.






Gas turbines are considered as a heat engine working according to thermodynamic cycle of constant pressure. Air is used as the working medium in the majority of practical applications, where it is compressed and heated up then expanded. From thermodynamic point of view, it is possible to prove that the work taken from air or exerted on it, at high temperature levels, is higher than that at low temperature levels. Therefore, it is possible to obtain a quantity of work from the turbine during expansion stage of the cycle higher than the work exerted during compression. The difference is sufficient to overcome all different sources of losses in addition to a huge quantity as output power used in different purposes.
As it is possible to add heat to the cycle by burning the fuel internally in the working medium (the air), or adding it from outside source, therefore the cycle may be called of internal combustion or external combustion type.
Air must be the working medium in case of internal combustion, as oxygen is necessary for combustion. If the cycle is of external combustion, it is possible to use any type of gases or vapors. If any other gas, rather than air is used, the cycle should be closed cycle.
Explaining the details of thermodynamics is out of this course, but some of principle thermodynamics are

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BMW 3- & 5-Series Service and Repair Manual

 Introduction to the BMW 3- and 5-Series

The E30 3-Series range first became available in the UK in March 1983, and continued in production until April 1991, when the revised E36 3-Series range (not covered by this manual) was introduced. Convertible and Touring (Estate) models were introduced for 1988, and these models have continued in E30 form to date. The E28 5-Series models were introduced in October 1981, and were superseded in June 1988 by the revised E34 5-Series range, Touring versions of which became available from March 1992. Throughout this manual, E28 models are also referred to as “oldshape”,

while E34 models are designated“new-shape”. The models covered by this manual are equipped with single overhead cam in-line four- and six-cylinder engines. Early 316 and 518 models are fitted with carburettors, but all other models are fitted with fuel injection systems. Transmissions are a five-speed manual, or three- or four-speed automatic.

The transmission is mounted to the back of the engine, and power is transmitted to the fully-independent rear axle through a twopiece propeller shaft. The final drive unit is bolted solidly to a frame crossmember, and drives the rear wheels through driveshafts equipped with inner and outer constant velocity joints.

The front suspension is of MacPherson strut type, with the coil spring/shock absorber unit making up the upper suspension link. The rear suspension is made up of coil springover-

shock absorber struts, or coil springsand conventional shock absorbers,depending on model.
The brakes are disc type at the front, with either drums or discs at the rear, depending on model. Servo assistance is standard on all models. Some later models are equipped with an Anti-lock Braking System (ABS). All models are manufactured to fine limits, and live up to the BMW reputation of quality workmanship. Although many of the models covered by this manual appear complex at first sight, they should present no problems to the home mechanic.

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complete search about Nitrous Oxide Injection System

What Is Nitrous Oxide?

Nitrous oxide is a gas composed of two nitrogen atoms bonded to one oxygen atom. The scientific abbreviation for one nitrous oxide molecule is N2O where N is nitrogen, and O is oxygen. This is where the familiar phrase 'N-2-O' comes from when people talk about nitrous oxide. How Nitrous Oxide Makes Power Nitrous oxide kits make large amounts of horsepower by allowing an engine to
burn more fuel. Burning more fuel creates higher cylinder pressures that will push down on the pistons with greater force. When the nitrous is injected into an engine and the initial combustion takes place, it creates enough heat to separate the nitrous oxide into its two components, nitrogen and oxygen. Once separated, the
additional oxygen is then free to react with additional fuel. To run nitrous successfully and safely,
you have to introduce precise amounts of additional fuel with precise amounts of nitrous oxide. All of the extra oxygen provided by the nitrous oxide must have fuel with which to react or you may damage
your engine severely. When the amount ofnitrous and the amount of supplementalfuel is controlled precisely, your engine can safely and reliably generate exceptional power increases.

Wet & Dry Nitrous Systems

A fuel injected dry manifold system uses a spray nozzle to deliver only nitrous oxide
to the intake. A wet manifold system introduces fuel and nitrous into the intake manifold.
With a dry manifold system, the additional fuel is supplied by increasing fuel
delivery from the injectors when the nitrous system is activated. It is called a dry manifold
system because there isn’t any fuel present in the intake manifold. The ZEX
Nitrous System is a dry system.

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do you know how car engine works?(automobile engineering)

First things , the car engine is an internal combustion engine, of which there are a number of various types including diesel engine, gasoline engine, rotary engine and engine two times. The internal combustion engine works with the basic premise of injecting a small amount of high-energy fuel, eg gasoline or diesel in a small closed space, lighting and creating a massive amount of energy as a gas in expansion. The trick of the internal combustion engine is removed is the accusation of explosions like this hundreds of times for one minute and management to harness the energy that is thus created. Almost all cars use four-stroke cycle combustion to convert fuel into motion, the four strokes being - intake, compression, combustion and exhaust.

In the beginning of the cycle the piston starts on top, once the intake valve opens, the piston moves downward, letting the engine take in a cylinder filled with air which also injects a drop Petrol. The piston moves back up to compress the air with the drop in gasoline, the compression will cause the explosion is going to happen all the more powerful. When the piston reaches its limit, the spark plug emits a spark that ignites the gasoline, causing an explosion causing the piston down. When the piston reaches its lower limit, the exhaust valve opens and the exhaust pipe of the cylinder, leaving the vehicle exhaust pipe. This cycle is repeated again and again. The linear movement of the pistons is converted into a rotary motion by the crankshaft, which then becomes the vehicle wheels. As you may have gathered, the cylinder is one of the main components of the internal combustion engine. Most cars have four, six or eight cylinders.

complete course in internal combustion engines and its cooling system

Internal combustion

1.1) Introduction:

The internal combustion engine is an engine in which the combustion of fuel and an oxidizer (typically air) occurs in a confined space called a combustion chamber. This exothermic reaction creates gases at high temperature and pressure, which are permitted to expand. The defining feature of an internal
combustion engine is that useful work is performed by the expanding hot gases acting directly to cause movement of solid parts of the engine, by acting on pistons, rotors, or even by pressing on and moving the entire engine itself.

We will first starts with the first Engine that had been made to move the first plane and will show The developments that done later to improve it.

2.1) The first 4-stroke internal combustion of a plane

This is an computer drawing of one cylinder of the Wright brothers' 1903 aircraft engine. This engine powered the first, heavier than air, self-propelled, maneuverable, piloted aircraft; the Wright 1903 Flyer. The engine consisted of four cylinders like the one shown above, with each piston connected to a common crankshaft. The crankshaft was connected to two counter-rotating propellers which produced the thrust necessary to overcome the drag of the aircraft. The brothers' design is very simple by today's standards, so it is a good engine for students to study to learn the fundamentals of engine operation. This type of internal combustion engine is called a four-stroke engine because there are four movements, or strokes, of the piston before the entire engine firing sequence is repeated. The four strokes are described below with some still figures. In the animation and in all the figures, we have colored the fuel/air intake system red, the electrical system green, and the exhaust system blue. We also represent the fuel/air mixture and the exhaust gases by small colored balls to show how these gases move through the engine. Since we will be referring to the movement of various engine parts, here is a figure showing the names of the parts

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