All about CNC Machines

CNC Machining is a process used in the manufacturing sector that involves the use of computers to control machine tools. Tools that can be controlled in this manner include lathes, mills, routers and grinders. The CNC in CNC Machining stands for Computer Numerical Control.
 On the surface, it may look like a normal PC controls the machines, but the computer's unique software and control console are what really sets the system apart for use in CNC machining. Under CNC Machining, machine tools function through numerical control.
 A computer program is customized for an object and the machines are programmed with CNC machining language (called G-code) that essentially controls all features like feed rate, coordination, location and speeds. With CNC machining, the computer can control exact positioning and velocity. CNC machining is used in manufacturing both metal and plastic parts.
 First a CAD drawing is created (either 2D or 3D), and then a code is created that the CNC machine will understand. The program is loaded and finally an operator runs a test of the program to ensure there are no problems. This trial run is referred to as "cutting air" and it is an important step because any mistake with speed and tool position could result in a scraped part or a damaged machine.

ADVANTAGES
 - CNC machines are programmed with a design which can then be manufactured hundreds or even thousands of times. Each manufactured product will be exactly the same.
 - CNC machines can be used continuously 24 hours a day, 365 days a year and only need to be switched off for occasional maintenance.
 - CNC machines can be updated by improving the software used to drive the machines
- Less skilled/trained people can operate CNCs unlike manual lathes / milling machines etc.. which need skilled engineers.
 - CNC machines can be programmed by advanced design software such as Pro/DESKTOP®, enabling the manufacture of products that cannot be made by manual machines, even those used by skilled designers / engineers.
- Training in the use of CNCs is available through the use of ‘virtual software’. This is software that allows the operator to practice using the CNC machine on the screen of a computer. The software is similar to a computer game.
- Modern design software allows the designer to simulate the manufacture of his/her idea. There is no need to make a prototype or a model. This saves time and money.
 - A skilled engineer can make the same component many times. However, if each component is carefully studied, each one will vary slightly. A CNC machine will manufacture each component as an exact match.
 - One person can supervise many CNC machines as once they are programmed they can usually be left to work by themselves. Sometimes only the cutting tools need replacing occasionally.

  DISADVANTAGES
- CNC machines are more expensive than manually operated machines, although costs are slowly coming down.
 - Less workers are required to operate CNC machines compared to manually operated machines. Investment in CNC machines can lead to unemployment.
- The CNC machine operator only needs basic training and skills, enough to supervise several machines. In years gone by, engineers needed years of training to operate centre lathes, milling machines and other manually operated machines. This means many of the old skills are been lost.
 - Many countries no longer teach pupils / students how to use manually operated lathes / milling machines etc... Pupils / students no longer develop the detailed skills required by engineers of the past. These include mathematical and engineering skills. and now you will be amazed with its features :

Video : The Power Of Friction - Welding

in this video , you will see how friction have the power to weld two metals with each other ( this welding process also used for repairing the petroleum Tubular)

 

in Earth Day: 30 scenes around the world for our planet suffering



The world celebrate with earth day every year at : 22 april for the 42th respectively in 175 country around the world , this day aims to spread the awareness and interest with Environment and Nature for the earth . this was found by U.S senator : Gaylord Nelson , it was held for the first time at 22 april 1970

so , with this anniversary we will review some of the scenes around the world for what we had done in nature fir using Petroleum Products and Carbon Emissions in the air which changed the climate and impact on organisms of all kinds and also we will see how some countries try to replace the oil sources with renewable energy sources like sun and air






Top Ten : Tallest Buildings in the World

in this topic we will take about the tallest Buildings in the world that has built
The Tallest Towers in the World !!

1- Khalefa Tower in Dubai - UAE (828 Meter long )

The Tallest Towers in the World !!
building starts at : 2004
 finished at :  2010
 it has a division for offices ,  housing , and hotels

2- Clock Tower in Makka , Saudi Arabia ( 601 Meter long )

The Tallest Towers in the World !!
building starts at : 2004
 finished at :  2012  

3- Taipei 101 Tower in Taipei town  , taiwan  (508 Meter )

The Tallest Towers in the World !!
started at : 1999
 finished at : 2004  

4-International Financial Tower in Shanghai, China (492 meters)

The Tallest Towers in the World !!
started at : 1997
 finished at : 2008

5- World Trade Centre building in Hong Kong, China (484 meters)

 
The Tallest Towers in the World !!
started at : 2002
 Finished at : 2010

6,7 - Petronas Tower 1 and 2 Petronas in KualaLumpur, Malaysia (451.9 meters)

 
Top Ten : Tallest Buildings in the World !!
started at : 1992
Finished at : 1998

8 - Tower Sepnj, in Nangeling, China (450 meters)

 
Top Ten : Tallest Buildings in the World !!
started at : 2005
 Finished at : 2010

9 - Willis office tower in Anues. United States (442.1 meters)

 
Top Ten : Tallest Buildings in the World !!
started at : 1970
 Finished at : 1974

10 - KK100 Tower in Shenzhen, China (441.8 meters)

 
Top Ten : Tallest Buildings in the World !!
started at : 2007
 Finished at : 2011
 Information was collected from the list issued by the Council on Tall Buildings and Urban Habitat (CTBUH). Which was issued on 17.4.2013 at 11:45 GMT SCT

  Source: Top Ten : Tallest Buildings in the World

Welding High Temperature Pressure Pipes




Abstract :
In this research we will explain the usage of Pipelines in our life and some problems that may happens to it and how to overcome this , we will also explain the different welding techniques and how to select the best for the needed situation .
Also we will review the welding defects and how to remedies it , the defects that happens to high pressure and temperature pipelines (with actual example of el kuriemat power station and the boiler pipe problems )  , also the welding procedures , joints types , the new numerical method to avoid this welding problems  

List of Contents
1.     Introduction 
1.2.         Metal Pipes 
1.3.         Piping 
1.4.         Pipe size 
1.5.         Pipe wall Thickness 
2.     Classification of Pressure Piping 
2.2.         Pressure Tubing
2.3.         El kuriemat electric power plant capacities
3.     Weld heat tented area induced failure of boiler water wall tubes in power generation plant
3.1.         Non-Destructive Investigations 
3.2.         Destructive Examinations 
4.        Pipelines welding 
4.1.         Joints types 
4.2.         Gas shielded Metal Arc Welding 
4.3.         Metal Arc welding with covered Electrodes 
4.4.         Welding equipment 
4.5.         Pipe welding in vertical down with cellulosic electrodes
4.6.         Automatic Pipe Welding 
5.        Defects and Remedies
6.        Field Weld symbol
7.        General Definitions

if  you want this research and some of related books ..... contact me  


Top Three Common Problems for Car Engine


Top Three Common Problems for Car Engine 

Once morning your engine doesn't start... What's wrong? if you know how engine works, you can understand the basic things that keep an engine from working. their is Three fundamentals reasons for that problem :
lack of compression , a bad fuel mixor or lack of spark. Beyond that, thousands of minor reasons that can create problems, but these are the "mostly happens reasons" , here is a quick rundown on how these problems



Lack of compression - If the charge of air and fuel cannot be compressed properly, the combustion process will not work like it should. Lack of compression might occur for these reasons:

- Your piston rings are worn (allowing air/fuel to leak past the piston during compression).
There is a hole in the cylinder.
- The intake or exhaust valves are not sealing properly, again allowing a leak during compression
- The most common "hole" in a cylinder occurs where the top of the cylinder (holding the valves and spark plug and also known as the cylinder head) attaches to the cylinder itself. Generally, the cylinder and the cylinder head bolt together with a thin gasket pressed between them to ensure a good seal. If the gasket breaks down, small holes develop between the cylinder and the cylinder head, and these holes cause leaks.



Bad fuel mix - A bad fuel mix can occur in many ways:
- There might be an impurity in the fuel (like water , solid materials in your gas tank) that makes the fuel not burn.
- The air intake might be clogged, so there is fuel but not enough air.
- You are out of gas, so the engine is getting air but no fuel.
- the combustion does not occur properly , as The fuel system might be supplying too much or too little fuel to the mix



Lack of spark - The spark might weak or be nonexistent for many reasons:
- worn out of your spark plug or the wire leading to it  so , the spark will be weak.
- if the system that sends a spark down the wire is not working properly, there will be no spark or If the wire is cut or missing
- If the spark timing is off either too early or too late in the cycle , the fuel will not ignite at the right time, and this can cause all sorts of problems.

Many other things can go wrong. For example:
- If the bearings that allow the crankshaft to turn freely are worn out, the crankshaft cannot turn so the engine cannot run.
- If the battery is dead, you cannot turn over the engine to start it.
- If the valves do not open and close at the right time or at all, air cannot get in and exhaust cannot get out, so the engine cannot run.
As you can see, an engine has a number of systems that help it do its job of converting fuel into motion. We'll look at the different subsystems used in engines in the next few sections.
- If you run out of oil, the piston cannot move up and down freely in the cylinder, and the engine will seize.
In a properly running engine, all of these factors are within tolerance.
- If someone sticks a potato up your tailpipe, exhaust cannot exit the cylinder so the engine will not run.

Trick Photography And Special Effects E-Book Review


Trick Photography and Special Effects by Evan Sharboneau is a popular Educational eBook that shows how to do make the photos trick that often capture attention and from viewers. It is detailed and includes explanations of many complicated techniques that are fun to learn. I found this eBook is very useful and original.
This eBook is inspiring with new ideas and techniques. It is three well-organized modules. Each module contains chapters and sub-chapters in order to make the vast amount of information more easily digestible. The list of the content is really just scratching the surface because each section has many sub-chapters focusing on various techniques for specific effects:

LONG EXPOSURE EFFECTS & LIGHT PAINTING ( 80 PAGES )

-  Fundamental of Lights and Techniques
-  Other Sources of the light
-  Light Painting Techniques
-  Lightning
-  Motion Blur
-  Star Trails
-  Other Fun Long Exposures

TRICK PHOTOGRAPHY AND SPECIAL EFFECTS ( 60 PAGES )

-  In-Camera Illusions
-  HDR Photography
-  Infrared Photography
-  360×180 Planet Panoramas
-  The Droste Effect
-  Time-Displacement Photography via Scanner

Photoshop Projects ( 46 Pages )

- The Harris Shutter Effect
-  Introduction to Layer Masks and Blending Modes
-  Multiplicity Photography
-  Levitation Photography
-  The Invisible Man
-  Flesh Manipulations
-  Fake Tilt-Shift Photography
-  Mixing Day with Night

Quality Guarantee

Another interesting aspect of this eBook is a quality guarantee for anyone who acquires it. The author so confident that you will like this e-book that if for any reason you are not the least bit happy with it, he will give you a full refund with his 60-Day 100% money back guarantee.
 

You Can Get Your Copy From Here 


Source: ITExpert.net